But for now, however, we address those who, for whatever reason, wish to use a Mark 3 sextant. There is a manual that comes with the Mark 3, rather detailed even, but it is our experience from teaching cel nav for so many years to so many thousands of students that the stock manual is not enough. So our GPS Backup Kit includes the book below, which explains how to use the Mark 3, which must start with how to read the scales, the subject at hand.
Back and front covers of our new book, available in print or ebook format.
Later we address how to calibrate the sextant and take sun and star sights, but now we just look at how to read the scales. Below is the angle the sextant measures, called sextant height (Hs).
Below is a picture of the Mark 3 with parts identified. There are two adjustment screws (#1 and #2) which we discuss later. The angle we measure Hs will be in the form 39º 20', which is about what the one below is set to.
We read the degrees part of the angle from the arc scale, and the minutes part of the angle from the vernier scale at the bottom of the index arm that slides along the arc. A vernier scale is a way to estimate fractional positions between two lines. The linear version we use today was invented by Pierre Vernier in the 1630s, likely based on a circular version used by Portuguese navigators in the late 1500s. The vernier scale has interval separations slightly larger than those on the scale it is interpolating. In the picture below we see that 30 intervals on the vernier scale span 31 intervals on the arc scale.
Start by looking at sample A below (click the pic for a better view). This is a reference showing what 0º 0' looks like. The checks we make for sextant calibration at each sight (index error) will be just a slight variation of this alignment, as discussed below.
|Click the image for a bigger view.
The degrees part of any sight is read from the arc scale relative to the 0' mark on the vernier scale. In sample B we see from the degrees scale that the angle is bigger than 32º, but somewhat less than halfway to 33º. In other words the minutes part of the angle will be less than 30' It is always valuable to estimate what the minutes are before actually checking to see what they are. In this case, for example, you might decide is this just a bit bigger than 32 or is it almost 33 or is it near halfway, just below or above halfway, and so on.
Use the vernier scale to to get a better measure by finding which of the tic marks on the vernier scale most closely lines up with any of the degree marks above it. Zooming in on the image (which we do with a small magnifying glass when underway) we see that 20' or 22' could be considered aligned, with 18' or 24' definitely not aligned. Note too that the out of alignment marks will be off in the opposite direction on either side of the best aligned one... or maybe two, as in this case. We called this one 22, but you could argue in this case that 21' might be best, since 20 and 22 were pretty close.
In Sample C this is a little easier with the degrees being almost 32, but not quite, so degrees part is 31º and the minutes alignment is best at 46'. Again, notice that the 45' and 57' are off in opposite directions.
A possible blunder to make in these measurements is to count the degrees scale backwards. In sample C that would be reading the angle as just bigger than 28º. It pays to double check we are doing that right. In other configurations it could be more misleading.
The next three samples are what we see when measuring the index correction, discussed later. In sample E we can see from the degrees scale alone that we are just above 0º and checking the vernier we see the amount above is 6', with 4' and 8' off in opposite directions. This value of Hs would be 0º 6'. When doing an index correction measurement we would call this 6' "On the scale."
In sample F we have similar case, but in this one it is easier to see that both 4' and 6' are equally unaligned but they are better than all the others, so this would be called 5' On the scale.
In sample G we cannot tell from the 0º alignment if this is above or below 0, so we check the vernier to find that the 52' mark is best aligned, and again we check that the alignment on either side is off in the opposite directions. With these large minutes aligned, we have effectively -1º + 52' = -8'. In other words, this alignment is just 8' Off the scale, which is how we would record it.
For index corrections we have then either small minutes aligned which are called "On the scale" or we have large minutes aligned and we subtract that from 60' and call the result "Off the scale."
That is how the scales are read. This must be done carefully if we want to get out the full potential of the Mark 3 sextant. A small magnifier helps. Also we stress multiple places that whenever possible we should not rely on just one measurement. For good work we should take 3 or 4 sights each time so we can average the results.
We will add more articles and videos on the use of this sextant, but they will now assume we know how to read it.